The JIDM Specification Translation and JIDM Interactive Translation Technical Standards have been adopted by the Object Management Group. These two Joint Inter-Domain Management (JIDM) standards provide tools that enable interworking between management systems based on different technologies, notably OSI management, SNMP, and OMG CORBA-based management frameworks. In addition, these tools permit technology from one domain to be used in other domains. These standards define how to map between the relevant object models in each domain, and how to build on this to provide mechanisms to handle protocol and behavior conversions of the domain boundaries. Interworking between a particular pair of management reference models requires both a translation scheme between the different object models of both management reference models (Specification Translation), and a dynamic conversion mechanism between the protocols and behaviors in both domains (Interaction Translation). This then allows objects in one domain to be represented in the other domain, and the interactions can be governed by the domain of choice rather than by the domain in which the target object is implemented.